Environmental Terms: A
Abandoned Well: A well whose use has been permanently discontinued or which is in a state of such disrepair that it cannot be used for its intended purpose.
Abatement Debris: Waste from remediation activities.
Abatement: Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution.
Absorbed Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance that penetrates an exposed organism's absorption barriers (e.g., skin, lung tissue, gastrointestinal tract) through physical or biological processes. The term is synonymous with Internal Dose.
Absorption Barrier: Any of the exchange sites of the body that permit uptake of various substances at different rates (e.g., skin, lung tissue, and gastrointestinal-tract wall).
Absorption: The uptake of water, other fluids, or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism (as tree roots absorb dissolved nutrients in soil).
Accident Site: The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, either at a plant or along a transportation route, resulting in a release of hazardous materials.
Acclimatization: The physiological and behavioral adjustments of an organism to changes in its environment.
Acid Aerosol: Acidic liquid or solid particles small enough to become airborne. High concentrations can irritate the lungs and have been associated with respiratory diseases like asthma.
Acid Deposition: A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere, often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called Acid Rain, can fall to earth as rain, snow, or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates.
Acid Mine Drainage: Drainage of water from areas that have been mined for coal or other mineral ores. The water has a low pH because of its contact with sulfur-bearing material and is harmful to aquatic organisms.
Acid Neutralizing Capacity: Measure of ability of a base (e.g., water or soil) to resist changes in pH.
Acid Rain: See Acid Deposition.
Acidic: The condition of water or soil that contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0.
ACScale Sound Level: A measurement of sound approximating the sensitivity of the human ear, used to note the intensity or annoyance level of sounds.
Action Levels: 1. Regulatory levels recommended by EPA for enforcement by FDA and USDA when pesticide residues occur in food or feed commodities for reasons other than the direct application of the pesticide. As opposed to Tolerances, which are established for residues occurring as a direct result of proper usage, action levels are set for inadvertent residues resulting from previous legal use or accidental contamination. 2. In the Superfund program, the existence of a contaminant concentration in the environment high enough to warrant action or trigger a response under SARA and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan. The term is also used in other regulatory programs. (see Tolerances)
Activated Carbon: A highly adsorbent form of carbon used to remove odors and toxic substances from liquid or gaseous emissions. In waste treatment, it is used to remove dissolved organic matter from waste drinking water. It is also used in motor vehicle evaporative control systems.
Activated Sludge: Product that results when primary effluent is mixed with bacteria-laden sludge and then agitated and aerated to promote biological treatment, speeding the breakdown of organic matter in raw sewage undergoing secondary waste treatment.
Activator: A chemical added to a pesticide to increase its activity.
Active Ingredient: In any pesticide product, the component that kills, or otherwise controls, target pests. Pesticides are regulated primarily on the basis of active ingredients.
Activity Plans: Written procedures in a school's asbestos-management plan that detail the steps a Local Education Agency (LEA) will follow in performing the initial and additional cleaning, operation and maintenance-program tasks; periodic surveillance; and reinspection required by the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).
Acute Exposure: A single exposure to a toxic substance which may result in severe biological harm or death. Acute exposures are usually characterized as lasting no longer than a day, as compared to longer, continuing exposure over a period of time.
Acute Toxicity: The ability of a substance to cause severe biological harm or death soon after a single exposure or dose. Also, any poisonous effect resulting from a single short-term exposure to a toxic substance. (see Chronic Toxicity, Toxicity)
Adaptation: Changes in an organism's physiological structure or function or habits that allow it to survive in new surroundings.
Add-on Control Device: An air pollution control device such as carbon absorber or incinerator that reduces the pollution in an exhaust gas. The control device usually does not affect the process being controlled and thus is add-on technology, as opposed to a scheme to control pollution through altering the basic process itself.
Adequately Wet: Asbestos-containing material that is sufficiently mixed or penetrated with liquid to prevent the release of particulates.
Administered Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance given to a test subject (human or animal) to determine dose-response relationships. Since exposure to chemicals is usually inadvertent, this quantity is often called potential dose.
Administrative Order: A legal document signed by EPA directing an individual, business, or other entity to take corrective action or refrain from an activity. It describes the violations and actions to be taken, and can be enforced in court. Such orders may be issued, for example, as a result of an administrative complaint whereby the respondent is ordered to pay a penalty for violations of a statute.
Administrative Order On Consent: A legal agreement signed by EPA and an individual, business, or other entity, through which the violator agrees to pay for correction of violations, take the required corrective or cleanup actions, or refrain from an activity. It describes the actions to be taken, may be subject to a comment period, applies to civil actions, and can be enforced in court.
Administrative Procedures Act: A law that spells out procedures and requirements related to the promulgation of regulations.
Administrative Record: All documents which EPA considered or relied on in selecting the response action at a Superfund site, culminating in the record of decision for remedial action or, an action memorandum for removal actions.
Adsorption: Removal of a pollutant from air or water by collecting the pollutant on the surface of a solid material; e.g., an advanced method of treating waste in which activated carbon removes organic matter from waste-water.
Adulterants: Chemical impurities or substances that by law do not belong in a food, or pesticide.
Adulterated: 1. Any pesticide whose strength or purity falls below the quality stated on its label. 2. A food, feed, or product that contains illegal pesticide residues.
Advanced Treatment: A level of wastewater treatment more stringent than secondary treatment; requires an 85-percent reduction in conventional pollutant concentration or a significant reduction in non-conventional pollutants. Sometimes called Tertiary Treatment.
Advanced Wastewater Treatment: Any treatment of sewage that goes beyond the secondary or biological water treatment stage and includes the removal of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen and a high percentage of suspended solids. (see Primary Treatment, Secondary Treatment)
Adverse Effects Data: FIFRA requires a pesticide registrant to submit data to EPA on any studies or other information regarding unreasonable adverse effects of a pesticide at any time after its registration.
Advisory: A non-regulatory document that communicates risk information to those who may have to make risk management decisions.
Aerated Lagoon: A holding and/or treatment pond that speeds up the natural process of biological decomposition of organic waste by stimulating the growth and activity of bacteria that degrade organic waste.
Aeration: A process which promotes biological degradation of organic matter in water. The process may be passive (as when waste is exposed to air), or active (as when a mixing or bubbling device introduces the air).
Aeration Tank: A chamber used to inject air into water.
Aerobic: Life or processes that require, or are not destroyed by, the presence of oxygen. (see Anaerobic)
Aerobic Treatment: Process by which microbes decompose complex organic compounds in the presence of oxygen and use the liberated energy for reproduction and growth. Such processes include extended aeration, trickling filtration, and rotating biological contactors.
Aerosol: 1. Small droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere, typically containing sulfur. They are usually emitted naturally (e.g., in volcanic eruptions) and as the result of anthropogenic (human) activities such as burning fossil fuels. 2. The pressurized gas used to propel substances out of a container.
Aerosol: A finely divided material suspended in air or other gaseous environment.
Affected Landfill: Under the Clean Air Act, landfills that meet criteria for capacity, age, and emissions rates set by the EPA. They are required to collect and combust their gas emissions.
Affected Public: 1.The people who live and/or work near a hazardous waste site. 2. The human population adversely impacted following exposure to a toxic pollutant in food, water, air, or soil.
Afterburner: In incinerator technology, a burner located so that the combustion gases are made to pass through its flame in order to remove smoke and odors. It may be attached to or be separated from the incinerator proper.
Age Tank: A tank used to store a chemical solution of known concentration for feed to a chemical feeder. Also called a day tank.
Agent: Any physical, chemical, or biological entity that can be harmful to an organism (synonymous with Stressors).
Agent Orange: A toxic herbicide and defoliant used in the Vietnam conflict, containing 2,4,5-trichlorophen-oxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with trace amounts of dioxin.
Agricultural Pollution: Farming wastes, including runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers; erosion and dust from plowing; improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses; crop residues; and debris.
Agroecosystem: Land used for crops, pasture, and livestock; the adjacent uncultivated land that supports other vegetation and wildlife; and the associated atmosphere, the underlying soils, groundwater, and drainage networks.
AHERA Designated Person (ADP): A person designated by a Local Education Agency to ensure that the AHERA requirements for asbestos management and abatement are properly implemented.
Air Binding: Situation where air enters the filter media and harms both the filtration and backwash processes.
Air Changes Per Hour (ACH): The movement of a volume of air in a given period of time; if a house has one air change per hour, it means that the air in the house will be replaced in a one-hour period.
Air Cleaning: Indoor-air quality-control strategy to remove various airborne particulates and/or gases from the air. Most common methods are particulate filtration, electrostatic precipitation, and gas sorption.
Air Contaminant: Any particulate matter, gas, or combination thereof, other than water vapor. (see Air Pollutant)
Air Curtain: A method of containing oil spills. Air bubbling through a perforated pipe causes an upward water flow that slows the spread of oil. It can also be used to stop fish from entering polluted water.
Air Exchange Rate: The rate at which outside air replaces indoor air in a given space.
Air Gap: Open vertical gap or empty space that separates drinking water supply to be protected from another water system in a treatment plant or other location. The open gap protects the drinking water from contamination by backflow or back siphonage.
Air Handling Unit: Equipment that includes a fan or blower, heating and/or cooling coils, regulator controls, condensate drain pans, and air filters.
Air Mass: A large volume of air with certain meteorological or polluted characteristics, e.g., a heat inversion or smogginess, while in one location. The characteristics can change as the air mass moves away.
Air Monitoring: See Monitoring.
Air/Oil Table: The surface between the vadose zone and ambient oil; the pressure of oil in the porous medium is equal to atmospheric pressure.
Air Padding: Pumping dry air into a container to assist with the withdrawal of liquid or to force a liquefied gas such as chlorine out of the container.
Air Permeability: Permeability of soil with respect to air. Important to the design of soil-gas surveys. Measured in darcys or centimeters-per-second.
Air Plenum: Any space used to convey air in a building, furnace, or structure. The space above a suspended ceiling is often used as an air plenum.
Air Pollutant: Any substance in air that could, in high enough concentration, harm man, other animals, vegetation, or material. Pollutants may include almost any natural or artificial composition of airborne matter capable of being airborne. They may be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or in combination thereof. Generally, they fall into two main groups: (1) those emitted directly from identifiable sources; and (2) those produced in the air by interaction between two or more primary pollutants, or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents, with or without photoactivation. Exclusive of pollen, fog, and dust, which are of natural origin, about 100 contaminants have been identified. Air pollutants are often grouped in categories for ease in classification. Some of the categories are solids, sulfur compounds, volatile organic chemicals, particulate matter, nitrogen compounds, oxygen compounds, halogen compounds, radioactive compound, and odors.
Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects.
Air Pollution Control Device: Mechanism or equipment that cleans emissions generated by a source (e.g., an incinerator, industrial smokestack, or an automobile exhaust system) by removing pollutants that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere.
Air Pollution Episode: A period of abnormally high concentration of air pollutants, often due to low winds and temperature inversion, that can cause illness and death. (see Episode, Pollution)
Air Quality Control Region: An interstate area or major intrastate area which the EPA deems necessary or appropriate for the attainment and maintenance of ambient air quality standards.
Air Quality Standards: The level of pollutants prescribed by regulations that are not be exceeded during a given time in a defined area.
Air Quality Criteria: The levels of pollution and lengths of exposure above which adverse health and welfare effects may occur.
Air Sparging: Injecting air or oxygen into an aquifer to strip or flush volatile contaminants as air bubbles up through the ground water which are captured by a vapor extraction system.
Air Stripping: A treatment system that removes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated ground water or surface water by forcing an airstream through the water and causing the compounds to evaporate.
Air Toxics: Any air pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) does not exist (i.e., excluding ozone, carbon monoxide, PM-10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide) that may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer; respiratory, cardiovascular, or developmental effects; reproductive dysfunctions, neurological disorders, heritable gene mutations, or other serious or irreversible chronic or acute health effects in humans.
Airborne Particulates: Total suspended particulate matter found in the atmosphere as solid particles or liquid droplets. The chemical composition of particulates varies widely, depending on location and time of year. Sources of airborne particulates include dust, emissions from industrial processes, combustion products from the burning of wood and coal, combustion products associated with motor vehicle or non-road engine exhausts, and reactions to gases in the atmosphere.
Airborne Release: Release of any pollutant into the air.
Alachlor: A herbicide, marketed under the trade name Lasso, used mainly to control weeds in corn and soybean fields.
Alar: Trade name for daminozide, a pesticide that makes apples redder, firmer, and less likely to drop off trees before growers are ready to pick them. It is also used to a lesser extent on peanuts, tart cherries, concord grapes, and other fruits.
Aldicarb: An insecticide sold under the trade name Temik. It is made from ethyl isocyanate.
Algae: Simple rootless plants that grow in sunlit waters in proportion to the amount of available nutrients. They can affect water quality adversely by lowering the dissolved oxygen in the water. They are food for fish and small aquatic animals.
Algal Blooms: Sudden spurts of algal growth, which can affect water quality adversely and indicate potentially hazardous changes in local water chemistry.
Algicide: Substance or chemical used specifically to kill or control algae.
Aliquot: A measured portion of a sample taken for analysis. One or more aliquots make up a sample. (see Duplicate)
Alkaline: The condition of water or soil which contains a sufficient amount of alkali substance to raise the pH above 7.0.
Alkalinity: The capacity of bases to neutralize acids. An example is the lime added to lakes to decrease acidity.
Allergen: A substance that causes an allergic reaction in individuals sensitive to it.
Alluvial: Relating to and/or sand deposited by flowing water.
Alternate Method: Any method of sampling and analyzing for an air or water pollutant that is not a reference or equivalent method but that has been demonstrated in specific cases -- to EPA's satisfaction ? to produce results adequate for compliance monitoring.
Alternative Compliance: A policy that allows facilities to choose among methods for achieving emission-reduction or risk-reduction instead of command-and-control regulations that specify standards and how to meet them. Use of a theoretical emissions bubble over a facility to cap the amount of pollution emitted while allowing the company to choose where and how (within the facility) it complies.(see Bubble, Emissions Trading)
Alternative Fuels: Substitutes for traditional liquid, oil-derived motor vehicle fuels like gasoline and diesel. Includes mixtures of alcohol-based fuels with gasoline, methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, and others.
Alternative Remedial Contract Strategy Contractors: Government contractors who provide project management and technical services to support remedial response activities at National Priorities List sites.
Ambient Air: Any unconfined portion of the atmosphere: open air, surrounding air.
Ambient Air Quality Standards: See Criteria Pollutants and National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
Ambient Measurement: A measurement of the concentration of a substance or pollutant within the immediate environs of an organism; taken to relate it to the amount of possible exposure.
Ambient Medium: Material surrounding or contacting an organism (e.g., outdoor air, indoor air, water, or soil), through which chemicals or pollutants can reach the organism. (see Biological Medium, Environmental Medium)
Ambient Temperature: Temperature of the surrounding air or other medium.
Amprometric Titration: A way of measuring concentrations of certain substances in water using an electric current that flows during a chemical reaction.
Anaerobic: A life or process that occurs in, or is not destroyed by, the absence of oxygen.
Anaerobic Decomposition: Reduction of the net energy level and change in chemical composition of organic matter caused by microorganisms in an oxygen-free environment.
Animal Dander: Tiny scales of animal skin, a common indoor air pollutant.
Animal Studies: Investigations using animals as surrogates for humans with the expectation that the results are pertinent to humans.
Anisotropy: In hydrology, the conditions under which one or more hydraulic properties of an aquifer vary from a reference point.
Annular Space, Annulus: The space between two concentric tubes or casings, or between the casing and the borehole wall.
Antagonism: Interference or inhibition of the effect of one chemical by the action of another.
Antarctic "Ozone Hole": Refers to the seasonal depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere above a large area of Antarctica. (seeOzone Hole)
Anti-Degradation Clause: Part of federal air quality and water quality requirements prohibiting deterioration where pollution levels are above the legal limit.
Anti-Microbial: An agent that kills microbes.
Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs): Any state or federal statute that pertains to protection of human life and the environment in addressing specific conditions or use of a particular cleanup technology at a Superfund site.
Applied Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance in contact with the primary absorption boundaries of an organism (e.g., skin, lung tissue, gastrointestinal track) and available for absorption.
Aqueous Solubility: The maximum concentration of a chemical that will dissolve in pure water at a reference temperature.
Aqueous: Something made up of water.
Aquifer: An underground geological formation, or group of formations, containing water. Sources of groundwater for wells and springs.
Aquifer Test: A test to determine hydraulic properties of an aquifer.
Aquitard: Geological formation that may contain groundwater but is not capable of transmitting significant quantities of it under normal hydraulic gradients. May function as confining bed.
Architectural Coatings: Coverings such as paint and roof tar that are used on exteriors of buildings.
Area of Review: In the UIC program, the area surrounding an injection well that is reviewed during the permitting process to determine if flow between aquifers will be induced by the injection operation.
Area Source: Any source of air pollution that is released over a relatively small area but which cannot be classified as a point source. Such sources may include vehicles and other small engines, small businesses and household activities, or biogenic sources such as a forest that releases hydrocarbons.
Aromatics: A type of hydrocarbon, such as benzene or toluene, with a specific type of ring structure. Aromatics are sometimes added to gasoline in order to increase octane. Some aromatics are toxic.
Arsenicals: Pesticides containing arsenic.
Artesian Aquifer or Well: Water held under pressure in porous rock or soil confined by impermeable geological formations.
Asbestos: A mineral fiber that can pollute air or water and cause cancer or asbestosis when inhaled. EPA has banned or severely restricted its use in manufacturing and construction.
Asbestos Abatement: Procedures to control fiber release from asbestos-containing materials in a building or to remove them entirely, including removal, encapsulation, repair, enclosure, encasement, and operations and maintenance programs.
Asbestos Assessment: In the asbestos-in-schools program, the evaluation of the physical condition and potential for damage of all friable asbestos-containing materials and thermal insulation systems.
Asbestos Program Manager: A building owner or designated representative who supervises all aspects of the facility asbestos management and control program.
Asbestos-Containing Waste Materials (ACWM): Mill tailings or any waste that contains commercial asbestos and is generated by a source covered by the Clean Air Act Asbestos NESHAPS.
Asbestosis: A disease associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. The disease makes breathing progressively more difficult and can be fatal.
Ash: The mineral content of a product remaining after complete combustion.
Assay: A test for a specific chemical, microbe, or effect.
Assessment Endpoint: In ecological risk assessment, an explicit expression of the environmental value to be protected; includes both an ecological entity and specific attributed thereof. For example, salmon are a valued ecological entity, which together with reproduction and population maintenance ? the attribute -- forms an assessment endpoint.
Assimilation: The ability of a body of water to purify itself of pollutants.
Assimilative Capacity: The capacity of a natural body of water to receive wastewaters or toxic materials without deleterious effects and without damage to aquatic life or humans who consume the water.
Association of Boards of Certification: An international organization representing boards which certify the operators of waterworks and wastewater facilities.
Attainment Area: An area considered to have air quality as good as or better than the national ambient air quality standards as defined in the Clean Air Act. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a non-attainment area for others.
Attenuation: The process by which a compound is reduced in concentration over time, through absorption, adsorption, degradation, dilution, and/or transformation. Can also refer to the decrease of sight with distance caused by the attenuation of light by particulate pollution.
Attractant: A chemical or agent that lures insects or other pests by stimulating their sense of smell.
Attrition: Wearing or grinding down of a substance by friction. Dust from such processes contributes to air pollution.
Availability Session: Informal meeting at a public location where interested citizens can talk with EPA and state officials on a one-to-one basis.
Available Chlorine: A measure of the amount of chlorine available in chlorinated lime, hypochlorite compounds, and other materials used as a source of chlorine, when compared with that of liquid or gaseous chlorines.
Avoided Cost: The cost a utility would incur to generate the next increment of electric capacity using its own resources; many landfill gas projects buy back rates are based on avoided costs.
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